Diabetes is one of the main public health problems since it affects a significant part of the world population: close to 400 million people worldwide, a figure that could increase to 592 million in 2035. Among the reasons that are increasing its incidence in the world is: the increase in obesity, the intake of processed products with high caloric density and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition, genetic or environmental factors are also involved. In recent years, it has been seen as the microorganisms present in the intestine. That is, the intestinal microbiota can influence its appearance.
Different studies have verified how certain bacteria of the intestinal flora can affect the absorption and extraction of nutrients. Therefore, to the regulation of energy balance. On the other hand, how the microbiota regulates the immune system. In turn, metabolism could also influence chronic inflammation that facilitates insulin resistance and diabetes.
People with diabetes have altered microbiota , which affects the extraction of energy from food. In this sense, it has been observed that alterations in the intestinal microbiota and changes in its composition and function may be related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Linked to an increase in Bacteroides and Clostridium bacteria. In addition, endotoxemia plays a key role. Defined as the presence in blood of endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides, main components of the membranes of negative bacteria, as a consequence of an increase in intestinal permeability. This situation could be an inflammatory factor that determines body weight gain, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. That is why a probiotic can help balance the microbiota to prevent its appearance.
For all these reasons, the future in the prevention of the development and appearance of diabetes could go through maintaining a balance of the intestinal flora. Thus, the most recent research points to the use of probiotics and prebiotics to regulate the intestinal microbiota by increasing positive bacteria and decreasing negative ones. This could reduce endotoxemia and, therefore, the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.