Obesity has become the great epidemic of the 21st century, with a strong socio-sanitary impact due to its associated comorbidities. For this reason, it is the subject of numerous studies to identify its possible causes and origins. These have allowed us to verify that it is not only a question of diet. Rather, other factors such as genetic, endocrine, psychological, and environmental factors may be involved in its development. Of course, leading a sedentary life. In addition, in recent years, research has been carried out on the role of the intestinal microbiota and its composition. This gives rise to the hypothesis that obesity can be controlled by modulating the intestinal microbiota with therapeutic interventions.
Thanks to its metabolic function, the intestinal microbiota is involved in obtaining energy from the diet, in digestion and in the synthesis of nutrients. As well as in the generation of absorbable compounds and in the production of vitamins. Therefore, it plays an important role in regulating body weight. Thus, those people with a reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota are more prone to being overweight and obese. And they are more at risk of metabolic diseases.
Therefore, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the development of obesity is evident.
On the one hand, diets rich in sugar and poor in fiber unbalance the intestinal flora. And on the other hand, it has been proven how the deficiency or increase of certain bacteria in the intestinal microbiota can be responsible for the development of obesity, by altering the metabolic functioning of the organism. Specifically, alterations in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes have been seen, compared to thin people. In addition, due to a reduced diversity of the microbiota, obese people are also characterized by low-grade inflammation and alterations in the intestinal barrier.
For all these reasons, we are trying to verify whether interventions on the intestinal flora aimed at promoting the growth of good bacteria and reducing the bad ones can serve to curb obesity. So much so that in recent years work has been done on the use of probiotic bacteria or yeasts to regulate the microbiota and thus prevent or control obesity, including other diseases such as diabetes. Thus, different investigations have observed anti-obesity effects with the use of certain probiotics. That they could act by mitigating lipogenesis, inflammation and weight gain